Publications

Books

 

 Ben-Shakhar, G., & Furedy, J.J. (1990). Theories and Applications in the Detection of Deception: A Psychophysiological and International Perspective.  New York: Springer-Verlag.

 

 

Editted books

  Ben-Shakhar, G., & Lieblich, A. (1995). Studies in Psychology: A volume in honor of Sonny Kugelmass. Scripta Hierosolymitana, 36, Jerusalem: Magnes Press.

 Verschuere, B., Ben-Shakhar, G., & Meijer, E. (2011). Memory detection: theory and application of the Concealed Information Test. Cambridge University Press.

 
Non-scientific publications

  Barr, M. & Ben-Shakhar, G. (2014). The Deceptive Machine: Mysticism and Pseudo-Science in Personality Assessment and Prediction. Tel Aviv: Matar Publishing House (in Hebrew).

 
Articles in Refereed Journals
2011-2019
         klein Selle, N., Agari, N. & Ben-Shakhar, G. (2019). Hide or seek? Physiological responses reflect both the decision and the attempt to conceal information. Psychological Science, in press.
         Nahari, T., Lancry-Dayan, O., Ben-Shakhar, G. & Pertzov Y. (2019). Detecting concealed familiarity using eye movements: the role of task demands. Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications, in press.
         Geven, L. M., Ben-Shakhar, G., Kindt, M. & Verschuere, B. (2019). It’s a match!? Appropriate Item Selection in the Concealed Information Test. Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications, in press.
      Iacono, W. I. & Ben-Shakhar, G. (2019). Current Status of Forensic Lie Detection with the Comparison Question Technique: An Update of the 2003 National Academy of Sciences Report on Polygraph Testing. Law and Human Behavior, 43. 86-98.
       Geven, L. M., klein Selle, N., Ben-Shakhar, G., Kindt, M. & Verschuere, B. (2018).  Self-initiated versus instructed cheating in the physiological Concealed Information Test. Biological Psychology, 138, 146-155.
       McCarthy, R. J. et al. (2018). Registered Replication Report on Srull & Wyer (1979). Advances in Methods and Practices in Psychological Science, 1, 321-336. doi.org/10.1177/2515245918777487.
Verschuere, B. et al. (2018). Registered Replication Report on Mazar, Amir & Arieli (2008). Advances in Methods and Practices in Psychological Science, 1, 299-317. DOI: 10.1177/2515245918781032
       Geven, L.M., Ben-Shakhar, G., Kindt, M. & Verschuere, B. (2018). Memory-based deception detection: Extending the cognitive signature of lying from instructed to self-initiated cheating. Topics in Cognitive Science, 1-24.
     Klein Selle, N., Ben-Shakhar, G., Kindt, M. & Verschuere, B. (2018). Preliminary evidence for physiological markers of implicit memory. Biological Psychology, 135, 220-235.
       Lancry-Dayan, O., Nahari, T., Ben-Shakhar, G. & Pertzov, Y. (2018). Do you know him? Gaze dynamics towards familiar faces on a concealed information test. Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, 7, 291-302.
     klein Selle, N., Verschuere, B., Kindt, M., Meijer, E., Nahari, T.  & Ben-Shakhar, G. (2017).  Memory detection: The effect of emotional stimuli. Biological Psychology, 129, 25-35.

  Suchotzki, K., Verschuere, B., van Bockstaele, B., Ben-Shakhar, G. & Crombez, G. (2017). Lying takes time: A meta-analysis on reaction time measures of deception. Psychological Bulletin, 143, 428-453. doi: 10.1037/bul0000087.

  Nahari, T., Breska, A., Elber, L., klein Selle, N. & Ben-Shakhar, G. (2017).   The external validity of the Concealed Information Test: The effect of choosing to commit a mock-crime. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 31, 81-90. doi: 10.1002/acp.3304

  Klein Selle, N., Verschuere, B., Kindt, M., Meijer, E. & Ben-Shakhar, G. (2017). Unraveling the roles of orienting and inhibition in the Concealed Information Test. Psychophysiology, 54. 628-639.

  Meijer, E.H., Verschuere, B., Gamer, M., Merckelbach, H. & Ben-Shakhar, G.  (2016).  Deception detection with behavioral, autonomic and neural measures: Conceptual and methodological considerations that warrant modesty. Psychophysiology, 53, 593-604.

  Klein Selle, N., Verschuere, B., Kindt, M., Meijer, E. & Ben-Shakhar, G. (2016). Orienting versus inhibition in the Concealed Information Test: Different cognitive processes drive different physiological measures. Psychophysiology, 53, 579-590.

   Gronau, N., Elber, L., Satran, S., Breska, B., & Ben-Shakhar, G. (2015). Retroactive memory interference: A potential countermeasure technique against psychophysiological knowledge detection methods. Biological Psychology, 106, 68-78.

Meijer, E.H., klein Selle, N., Elber, L., &Ben-Shakhar, G (2014). Memory detection with the Concealed Information Test: A Meta Analysis of Skin Conductance, Respiration, Heart Rate, and P300 data. Psychophysiology, 51, 879-904. DOI: 10.1111/psyp.12239. 

  Breska, A., Zaidenberg, D., Gronau, N. & Ben-Shakhar G. (2014). Psychophysiological detection of concealed information shared by groups: An empirical study of the searching CIT.  Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 20, 136-146.

  Nahari, G. & Ben-Shakhar, G. (2013).  Primacy effect in credibility judgments: The vulnerability of verbal cues to biased interpretations. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 247-255. Doi:10.1002/acp.2901. 

  Meijer E. H., Bente G., Ben-Shakhar G., & Schumacher A. (2013). Detecting concealed information from groups using a dynamic questioning approach: simultaneous skin conductance measurement and immediate feedback. Front. Psychology 4:68. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00068.

  Ben-Shakhar, G. (2012).  Current Research and Potential Application of the Concealed Information Test: An overview. Frontiers in Psychology, September 2012, Volume 3, Article 342. Doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00342.

  Maoz, K., Breska, A., & Ben-Shakhar, G. (2012). Orienting response elicitation by personally significant information under subliminal stimulus presentation: A demonstration using the concealed information test. Psychophysiology, 49, 1610-1617.  DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-8986.2012.01470.x.

  Breska, A., Ben-Shakhar, G. & Gronau, N. (2012). Algorithms for detecting concealed knowledge among groups when the critical information is unavailable. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 18, 292-300. DOI: 10.1037/a0028798.   

  Boucsein, W., Fowles, D.C., Grimnes, S., Ben-Shakhar, G., Roth, W.T., Dawson, M.E. & Filion, D.L. (2012).  Publication recommendations for electrodermal measurements. Psychophysiology, 49, 1017-1034. DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-8986.2012.01384.x

  Meshulam, M., Winter, E., Ben-Shakhar, G. & Aharon, I. (2012). Rational emotions. Social Neuroscience, 7, 11-17. DOI: 10.1080/17470919.2011.559124

  Breska, A., Israel, M., Maoz, K., Cohen, A. & Ben-Shakhar, G. (2011).      Personally-significant information affects performance only within the focus of attention: A direct manipulation of attention. Attention, Perception and Psychophysics, 6, 1754-1767.

  Nahari, G. & Ben-Shakhar, G. (2011). Psychophysiological and behavioral measures for detecting concealed information: The role of memory for crime details. Psychophysiology, 48, 733-744. 

  Breska, A., Maoz, K. & Ben-Shakhar, G. (2011). Inter-stimulus intervals for skin conductance response measurement. Psychophysiology, 48, 437-440.

 

2000-2009

  Elaad, E. & Ben-Shakhar, G. (2009). Countering countermeasures in the Concealed Information Test using covert respiration measures. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 34, 197-209.

  Gronau, N., Cohen, A., & Ben-Shakhar, G. (2009).  Distractor interference in focused attention tasks is not mediated by attention capture. Quarterly  Journal of Experimental Psychology, 62, 1685-1695. 

  Shefler, G., Ben-Shakhar, G., & Bilu, Y. (2009). The ethical significance of diagnostic test results in psychology practice. Medicine and Law, 28, 349-367.

  Kron, A., Cohen, A., Ben-Ziman, H., & Ben-Shakhar, G. (2009). What is it that Color Determinants determine? The relation between the Rorschach Inkblot Method and cognitive object-recognition processes. Journal of Personality Assessment, 91, 137-142. 

  Ben-Shakhar, G. (2008). The case against the use of polygraph examinations to     monitor post-conviction sex offenders. Legal and Criminological Psychology, 13, 191-207.  

  Elaad, E., & Ben-Shakhar, G. (2008).  Covert Respiration Measures for the Detection of Concealed Information, Biological Psychology, 77, 284-291.

  Miron-Shatz, T., & Ben-Shakhar, G. (2008. Disregarding preliminary information when rating job applicants' performance: mission impossible. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 38, 1271-1294. 

  Serebro-Sorek, K., Ben Shakhar, G., & Hoofien, D. (2007). Orienting responses and habituation among persons with traumatic brain injury:  Distinctive aspects of apathetic and disinhibited behaviors.  Brain Injury, 21, 583-591.

  Bargai, N., Ben-Shakhar, G., & Shalev, A. (2007).  Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Depression in Battered Women: The Mediating Role of Learned Helplessness. Journal of Family Violence, 22, 267-276. 

   Ben-Shakhar, G., Borenstein, G., Hopfensitz, A., & van Winden, F. (2007). Reciprocity and Emotions in Bargaining Using Physiological and Self-Report Measures. Journal of Economic Psychology, 28, 314-323.   

  Gronau N., Sequerra, E., Cohen, A. & Ben-Shakhar, G. (2006). The effect of novel distractors on focused-attention tasks: A cognitive-psychophysiological approach. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 13, 370-375. 

  Elaad, E., & Ben-Shakhar, G. (2006). Finger Pulse Waveform Length in the detection of Concealed Information. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 61, 226-234. 

   Gronau, N., Ben-Shakhar, G., & Cohen, A. (2005). Behavioral and physiological measures in the detection of concealed information. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90, 147-158. 

  Haimovich, T & Ben-Shakhar, G. (2004).  The matriculation certificate grades (Bagrut) and the score on the Psychometric Entrance Test (PET) as predictors of Graduation and Attrition. Megamot, 43, 446-470 (In Hebrew).

   Carmel, D., Dayan, E., Naveh, A., Raveh, O., & Ben-Shakhar, G. (2003). Estimating the validity of the Guilty Knowledge Test from simulated experiments: The external validity of Mock Crime studies. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 9, 261-269. 

   Gronau, N., Cohen, A., & Ben-Shakhar, G. (2003). Dissocations of personally-significant and task-relevant distractors inside and outside the focus of attention: A combined behavioral and psychophysiological study. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 132, 512-529. 

   Ben-Shakhar, G., & Elaad, E. (2003). The validity of psychophysiological detection of deception with the Guilty Knowledge Test: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 131-151.

  Ben-Shakhar, G., & Gati I. (2003). The effects of serial position and frequency of presentation of common stimulus features on orienting response reinstatement. Psychophysiology, 40, 139-145.

  Ben-Shakhar, G., & Elaad, E. (2002). Effects of questions' repetition and variation on the efficiency of the guilty knowledge test: A reexamination. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87, 972-977.

  Ben-Shakhar, G., Bar-Hillel, M., & Kremnitzer, M. (2002). Trial by polygraph: Reconsidering the use of the GKT in court. Law and Human Behavior, 26, 527-541.

   Brandes, B., Ben-Shakhar, G., Gilboa, A., Bonne, O., Freedman, S., & Shalev, A. Y. (2002). PTSD symptoms and cognitive performance in recent trauma survivors. Psychiatry Research, 110, 231-238.

   Ben-Shakhar, G., & Sheffer, L. (2001). The relationship between the ability to divide attention and standard measures of general cognitive abilities. Intelligence, 29, 293-306.

    Ben-Shakhar, G., Gati I, Ben-Bassat, N. & Sniper, G. (2000). Orienting response reinstatement and dishabituation: The effects of substituting, adding and deleting components of nonsignificant stimuli. Psychophysiology, 37, 102-110.

    Peri, T., Ben-Shakhar, G., Orr, S. P., & Shalev, A. Y. (2000). Psychophysiologic assessment of aversive conditioning in post-traumatic stress disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 47, 512-519.

 

 

1990-1999

  Saxe L., & Ben-Shakhar, G. (1999). Admissibility of polygraph tests: The application of scientific standards post-Daubert. Psychology, Public Policy and Law, 5, 203-223.

 Ben-Shakhar, G., Gronau, N., & Elaad, E. (1999). Leakage of relevant information to innocent examinees in the GKT: An attempt to reduce false-positive outcomes by introducing target stimuli. Journal of Applied Psychology, 84, 651- 660.

Ben-Shakhar, G., Bar-Hillel, M., Bilu, Y., & Shefler, G. (1998). Seek and ye shall find: A confirmation bias in clinical judgment. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 11, 235-249. 

Allalouf, A., & Ben-Shakhar, G. (1998). The effect of coaching on the predictive validity of scholastic aptitude tests. Journal of Educational Measurement, 35, 31-47.

Elaad, E., Ginton, A., & Ben-Shakhar, G. (1998). The Role of Prior Expectations in Polygraph Examiners Decisions. Psychology, Crime and Law, 4, 1-16.

Elaad, E., & Ben-Shakhar, G. (1997). Effects of Item Repetitions and Variations on the Efficiency of the Guilty Knowledge Test. Psychophysiology, 34, 587-596.

Ben-Shakhar, G., Frost, R., Gati, I., & Kresh, Y. (1996). Is an Apple a Fruit? Semantic Relatedness as Reflected by Psychophysiological Responsivity. Psychophysiology, 33, 671-679.

Gati, I., Ben-Shakhar, G., & Avni-Liberty, S. (1996). Stimulus Novelty and Significance in Electrodermal Orienting Responses: The Effects of Adding versus Deleting Stimulus Components. Psychophysiology, 33, 637-643. 

Ben-Shakhar, G., & Dolev, K. (1996). Psychophysiological Detection Through the Guilty Knowledge Technique: The Effects of Mental Countermeasures. Journal of Applied Psychology, 81, 273-281. 

Ben-Shakhar, G., Kiderman, I., & Beller, M. (1996). Comparing the utility of two procedures for admitting students to Liberal Arts: An application of decision-theoretic models. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 56, 90-107. 

Bachar, E., Dasberg, H., & Ben-Shakhar, G. (1995). Demandingness and belligerence in hospitalized depressed holocaust concentration camp survivors as perceived by the staff. Israeli Journal of Psychiatry and Related Sciences, 32, 262-267.

Shefler, G., Dasberg, H., & Ben-Shakhar, G. (1995). A randomized controlled outcome and follow-up study of Mann's time-limited psychotherapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 63, 585-593. 

Kugelmass, S., Faber, N., Loring, J.I., Frenkel, E., Nathan, M., Mirsky, A.F., & Ben-Shakhar, G. (1995). Reanalysis of SCOR and anxiety measures in the Israeli high-risk study. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 21, 205-217.

Ben-Shakhar, G., Gati, I., & Salamon, N. (1995). Generalization of the orienting response to significant stimuli: The roles of common and distinctive stimulus components. Psychophysiology, 32, 36-42.

Furedy, J. J., Gigliotti, F., & Ben-Shakhar, G. (1994). Electrodermal differentiation of deception: The effect of choice vs. no choice of deceptive items. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 18, 13-22.

Elaad, E., Ginton, A., & Ben-Shakhar, G. (1994). The effects of prior expectations and outcome knowledge on polygraph examiners' decisions. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 7, 279-292.

Ben-Shakhar, G. (1994). The roles of stimulus novelty and significance in determining the electrodermal orienting response: Interactive vs. additive approaches. Psychophysiology, 31, 402-411. 

Ben-Shakhar, G., & Beller, M. (1993). On the personal interview as a means for personnel selection and classification. Megamot, 35, 246- 259 (in Hebrew). 

Ben-Shakhar, G., & Gati I. (1992). The effect of common versus distinctive stimulus features on electrodermal orientation to significant stimuli. Psychophysiology, 29, 306-314. 

Ben-Shakhar, G. (1991). Clinical judgment and decision making in CQT Polygraphy: A comparison with other pseudoscientific applications in Psychology. Integrative Physiological and Behavioral Science, 26, 232-240.

Elaad, E., & Ben-Shakhar, G. (1991). Effects of mental countermeasures on psychophysiological detection in the guilty knowledge test. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 11, 99-108. 

Furedy, J.J. & Ben-Shakhar, G. (1991). The roles of deception, intention to deceive, and motivation to avoid detection in the psychophysiological detection of guilty knowledge. Psychophysiology, 28, 163-171.

Ben-Shakhar, G & Sinai, Y. (1991). Gender differences in multiple-choice tests: The role of differential guessing. Journal of Educational Measurement, 28, 23-35.

Gati, I., & Ben-Shakhar, G. (1990).  Novelty and significance in orientation and habituation: A feature-matching approach. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 119, 251-263. 

Rosenthal, A., & Ben-Shakhar,G. (1990). The validity of high school grades and matriculation scores for predicting academic achievement at the Hebrew University. Megamot, 32, 461-483 (in Hebrew).

 

1970 - 1989

Elaad, E., & Ben-Shakhar, G. (1989). Effects of motivation and verbal response type on psychophysiological detection of information.    Psychophysiology, 26, 442-451.

Neter, E., & Ben-Shakhar, G. (1989). The predictive validity of graphological inferences: A meta-analytic approach. Personality and Individual Differences, 10, 737-745.

 Ben-Shakhar, G., Lieblich, I., Poznansky-Levy, A., Asher, T., and Asherowitz, R. (1990). Psychophysiological responsivity to significant stimuli: The need for a new theoretical approach. In: K. Binyamini, A. Dolev, M. Amir, E. Cohen, and  I. M. Schlesinger  (Eds.). Theory and Application in Psychology : A volume in the memory of Israel Lieblich. Jerusalem: Magnes, 23-39 (in Hebrew). 

Ben-Shakhar, G., Asher, T., Poznansky-Levy, A., Asherowitz, R., &  Lieblich. I. (1989). Stimulus novelty and significance as determinants of electrodermal responsivity: The serial position effect. Psychophysiology, 26, 29-38.

Weiss, M., Lotan, I., Kedar, H. & Ben-Shakhar, G. (1988). Selecting candidates for a medical school: An evaluation of a selection model based on cognitive and personality predictors. Medical Education, 22, 492-497. 

Ben-Shakhar, G., & Gati, I.(1987). Common and distinctive features of verbal and pictorial stimuli as determinants of psychophysiological responsivity. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 116, 91-105.

 Ben-Shakhar, G., Bar-Hillel, M., & Lieblich, I.(1987). The polygraph in the courtroom, Mishpatim, The Hebrew University Law Journal, 16, 269-294 (in Hebrew).

Ben-Shakhar, G., Bar-Hillel, M. & Lieblich, I. (1986). Trial by polygraph: Scientific and juridical issues in lie detection. Behavioral Science and the Law, 4, 459-479. 

 Bilu, Y., Bar-Hillel, M., Ben-Shakhar, G., Ben-Abba., E., & Flug, A. (1987). The use of graphology for predicting occupational success. Megamot, 30, 257-275, (in Hebrew).

Ben-Shakhar, G., Bar-Hillel, M., Bilu, Y., Ben-Abba, E., & Flug., A. (1986). Can graphology predict occupational success? Two empirical studies and some methodological ruminations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, 645-653.

Gati, I., Ben-Shakhar, G. & Oren, C. (1986).  The relationship between similarity judgments and psychophysiological responsivity. Acta Psychologica, 62, 123-139.

Ben-Shakhar, G. (1985). Standardization within individuals: A simple method to neutralize individual differences in psychophysiological responsivity. Psychophysiology, 22, 292-299.

Nevo, B., & Ben-Shakhar, G. (1985). On the reliability of the Israeli matriculation examinations. Megamot, 29, 42-56 (in Hebrew).

Ben-Shakhar, G., & Beller, M. (1983). An application of decision-theoretic model to a quota-free selection problem. Journal of Applied Psychology, 68, 137-146.

Beller, M., & Ben-Shakhar, G. (1983).  On the fair use of Psychological tests. Megamot, 28, 42-56 (in Hebrew). 

Ben-Shakhar, G., & Lieblich I. (1982).  A critical evaluation of the theory and the application of the Polygraph ("Lie Detector").  Megamot, Behavioral Sciences Quarterly, 27, 280-292 (in Hebrew).

 Tubiana, J.H. & Ben-Shakhar, G. (1987). An objective group questionnaire as a substitute for a personal interview in the prediction of success in military training in Israel. Megamot, Behavioral Sciences Quarterly, 30, 230-236, (in Hebrew). 

Tubiana, J., & Ben-Shakhar, G. (1982). Validity of personality variables  in the prediction of success in military training in Israel. Personnel Psychology, 35, 349-357.

Ben-Shakhar, G., Lieblich, I., & Bar-Hillel, M. (1982).  An evaluation of Polygrapher's Judgments: A Review from a Decision Theoretic Perspective.  Journal of Applied Psychology, 67, 701-713.

Ben-Shakhar, G., & Lieblich, I. (1982). Similarity of auditory stimuli and generalization of skin conductance response (SCR) habituation. Physiological Psychology, 10, 331-335. 

Ginton, A., Daie, N., Elaad, E., & Ben-Shakhar, G. (1982).  A method   for evaluating the use of the polygraph in a real life situation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 67, 131-137. 

Ben-Shakhar, G., & Lieblich, I. (1982).  The dichotomization theory for differential autonomic responsivity reconsidered. Psychophysiology, 19, 277-281.

Ben-Shakhar, G., Dymshitz, J., & Lieblich, I. (1982). Generalization of habituation of skin conductance response to multidimensional sequences of stimuli. Psychophysiology, 19, 178-182.

Ben-Shakhar, G., Lieblich, I., & Kugelmass, S. (1982). Interactive effects of stimulus probability and significance on the skin conductance response.  Psychophysiology, 19, 112-114.

Beller, M., & Ben-Shakhar, G. (1981).  An evaluation study of the student's selection process at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.  Megamot, Behavioral Sciences Quarterly, 27, 22-36 (in Hebrew).

 Ben-Shakhar, G. (1980). Habituation of the orienting response to complex sequences of stimuli.  Psychophysiology, 17, 524-534.

 Lieblich, I., Ben-Shakhar, G., Kugelmass, S., & Cohen, Y. (1978). Decision theory approach to the problem of polygraph interrogation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 63, 489-498.

 Ben-Shakhar, G. (1977). A further study of dichotomization theory in detection of information.  Psychophysiology, 14, 408-413 (printed also in Polygraph, 1978).

 Lieblich, I., Ben-Shakhar, G., & Kugelmass, S. (1976). Validity of the guilty of knowledge technique in a prisoner's sample. Journal of Applied Psychology, 61, 89-93.

 Ben-Shakhar, G., Lieblich., I. & Kugelmass, S. (1975). Detection of information and GSR habituation: An attempt to derive detection efficiency from two habituation curves. Psychophysiology, 12, 283-288. 

 Kugelmass S., Lieblich, I., & Ben-Shakhar, G. (1973). Information detection through differential GSRs in Bedouins of the Israeli desert. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 4, 481-492.

 Lieblich, I., Kugelmass, S., & Ben-Shakhar, G. (1973). Psychophysiological baselines as a function of race and ethnic origin. Psychophysiology, 10, 426-430.

 Lieblich, I., Kugelmass, S., & Ben-Shakhar, G. (1970). Efficiency of GSR detection of information as a function of stimulus set size. Psychophysiology, 6, 601-608.

 Ben-Shakhar, G., Lieblich, I., & Kugelmass, S. (1970). Guilty knowledge technique: of Application of signal detection measures. Journal of Applied Psychology, 54, 409-413.

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